After the Austro-Hungarian monarchy collapsed in October 1918, the Basic Law on the Judiciary dated 22.11.1918 initially provided the establishment of the Supreme Court of Justice as the supreme forum in civil and criminal law cases, which was then implemented by the Act dated 25.1.1919 establishing a Supreme Court of Justice in Vienna to perform the functions for the national territory of the Republic of German Austria that had previously been exercised by the Austrian Supreme Court of Justice and Cassation. Finally, the Supreme Court was definitely given a secure constitutional basis by means of Art. 92 Para. 1 of the 1920 Federal Constitutional Act, its jurisdiction extending territorially to the three Higher Regional Court of Appeal districts at the time, namely Vienna, Graz and Innsbruck (Linz as the fourth Higher Regional Court of Appeal was only established on 1.4.1939).
The Palace of Justice fire on 15 July 1927 destroyed a major part of the premises of the Supreme Court. Until the Palace was rebuilt at the beginning of the 1930s, the Court was temporarily accommodated in the building at Herrengasse 17, in Vienna’s First District.